In the annals of history, there exist tales that capture the imagination and curiosity of generations. One such enigma is the baffling case of D.B. Cooper, also known as Dan Cooper, the elusive hijacker who vanished into thin air with a fortune and left behind a trail of intrigue. His audacious act of air piracy, known as the Cooper Case, unfolded over the rugged landscapes of the Pacific Northwest. This captivating narrative continues to bewitch both amateur sleuths and seasoned investigators alike, as the mystery surrounding Cooper's true identity and ultimate fate persists. Join us on a journey through the shadowy corridors of the Cooper investigation, where fact and speculation intermingle, and the truth remains tantalizingly out of reach.
D. B. Cooper: The Oregon Connection
Oregon, in particular, holds a significant place in the Cooper legend. The ruggedly majestic Columbia River Gorge served as a potential location for Cooper's disappearance. The vast expanses of Oregon's wilderness continue to inspire speculation and exploration, as individuals search for clues or stumble upon remnants that may shed light on the enigma surrounding Cooper's fate.
A Fateful Journey Begins: Dan Cooper and Flight 305
On a chilly November evening on November 24, 1971, an unassuming man known as Dan Cooper approached the ticket counter at Portland International Airport. The nondescript gentleman appeared to be in his mid-40s. He was reserved and quiet; the kind of person who would draw little attention, and rather simply blend unassumingly into the airport crowd. Clad in a business suit, black tie, loafers, and a trench coat, Cooper purchased a $20, one-way ticket to Seattle-Tacoma Airport aboard Northwest Orient Airlines Flight 305. Little did the unsuspecting crew and passengers realize that this unremarkable passenger would soon orchestrate one of the most audacious acts of air piracy in history.
Playing the Waiting Game
Aboard the plane, nothing seemed amiss. Cooper ordered a bourbon and soda from his 18-E aisle seat, comfortably settling in for the 2:50 pm takeoff. U of O student Bill Mitchell was sitting directly across from Cooper, while another nearby passenger, Robert Gregory, was seated nearby. Later, they would both give nearly identical physical descriptions of the nondescript man calling himself Dan Cooper. Gregory would attest that the man in question was likely of Mexican or Native descent, due to a somewhat darker facial complexion, while two flight attendants put his height at around 5'10". His only luggage was a briefcase and a brown paper bag.
As Flight 305 soared above the rugged terrain of the Pacific Northwest, DB Cooper discreetly passed a note to flight attendant Florence Schaffner, one of only 36 passengers aboard the flight. It was the eve of Thanksgiving, and commonplace in the early 1970s for men to sometimes slip their phone numbers to pretty flight attendants, so Shaffner went about her business, ignoring the folded piece of paper. When she passed the man again, however, he quietly but forcefully suggested that she pay closer attention to his scribbled missive.
The Hijacking Unfolds: Cooper Demanded His Needs
The contents of the message would forever alter events, as well as air travel itself. The flight attendant's eyebrows must have raised in surprise and dismay as she scanned the note she held.
"Miss—I have a bomb in my briefcase and want you to sit by me."
Opening his briefcase to Schaffner, Cooper revealed his trump card: a mass of wires and red-colored sticks, looking suspiciously like dynamite. He commanded that she write down what he told her.
Cooper demanded $200,000 (about $1.5 million today) in ransom money, four parachutes, and a fuel truck awaiting their arrival in Seattle.
Cooper's specific demands for the ransom money were meticulously calculated. He insisted on receiving the $200,000 in $20 bills, a choice that would result in a weight of approximately 21 pounds. This careful consideration was driven by the necessity to maintain a manageable load for his skydive. Cooper recognized that if smaller bills were used, the additional weight could pose a risk during his escape. On the other hand, larger bills would be lighter, but their bulkier size would make it more challenging for him to discreetly pass them. Furthermore, his request for random serial numbers instead of sequential ones demonstrated his attention to detail and desire to avoid any patterns that could potentially be traced back to him.
With the bomb-like object in his possession, Cooper made it clear that failure to comply would have dire consequences.
As Flight Attendant Florence Schaffner hastily jotted down the list of Cooper's demands, a sense of urgency enveloped her. With a quiet determination, she approached the cockpit door and rapped on it, wordlessly conveying the gravity of the situation to Captain William Scott, who commanded Flight 305 that fateful day. Scott, recognizing the seriousness of the hijacking, wholeheartedly believed Cooper's assertions. In a remarkable display of composure, Schaffner was directed to remain in the cockpit, assuming the role of a vigilant observer, documenting each unfolding moment of the unimaginable afternoon.
Meanwhile, Captain Scott was on the radio, contacting Seattle–Tacoma Airport air traffic control, who in turn dialed up Seattle police and the FBI.
Chart a Course to Mexico City
Upon landing in Seattle, Cooper's demands were met. The ransom money and parachutes were delivered to the plane, while Cooper released the 36 passengers. At this point, only five individuals remained aboard Flight 305: Cooper, flight attendant Tina Mucklow, Captain Scott, First Officer William J. Rataczak, and flight engineer Harold Anderson.
Amidst the escalating drama, an FAA official (Federal Aviation Administration) made contact with Captain Scott, seeking permission to board the aircraft and engage in a conversation with Cooper. The purpose of this unexpected visit was seemingly twofold: to caution Cooper about the inherent perils and severe repercussions of air piracy, as well as to convey a sense of urgency and concern regarding the unfolding events. Cooper denied this request, instead instructing the flight crew to take off once again, this time heading towards Mexico City at a low altitude.
A Daring Flight to Freedom: Cooper's Escape
Cooper had laid out his plans implicitly. His directions included specific airspeed, cruising altitude, wing-flap degrees, lowered landing gear, and take off with the plane's rear exit door open and its airstair extended.
The time was now 7:40 pm. Upon takeoff from Seattle Tacoma Airport, the plane was joined by an escort of two F-106 fighter jets deployed from Lewis-McChord Air Force Base. Flight attendant Tina Mucklow was left in the cabin with Cooper, nervous but outwardly calm. "Please, please take the bomb with you," she begged, realizing what was about to take place. Cooper had ordered her back to the cockpit, requesting that she remain there, closing the curtain behind her.
At approximately 8:00 pm, donning a civilian parachute, Cooper made his way to the rear stairwell of the aircraft, staring out into the cold, southwestern Washington night.
The Vanishing: Cooper's Disappearing Act
On November 24, 1971, as Flight 305 crossed the Columbia River and entered the vast expanse of Southwest Washington, Dan Cooper executed a feat that has confounded investigators for decades. With the plane's rear door open, the wind howling, and the dark night enveloping him, Cooper leaped into the abyss below, taking $200,000 in cash with him.
The Air Force F-106 pilots encountered a baffling absence of evidence. Neither did they witness any individual leaping from the airliner nor did their radar detect the presence of a deployed parachute. It was a formidable challenge to detect a figure clad in black, descending into the moonless expanse of the night sky. Compounded by limited visibility, cloud cover, and the absence of ground lighting, the chances of spotting such a clandestine descent were significantly diminished.
Eventually, the plane landed in Reno, Nevada, but Cooper was nowhere to be found. He had vanished without a trace, leaving behind a shroud of mystery and unanswered questions.
The Intensifying Investigation: Pursuing the Identity of D. B. Cooper
In the aftermath of the D. B. Cooper hijacking, the FBI launched an extensive investigation to uncover the true identity of the enigmatic criminal but were left with more questions than solid answers. From the FBI's official webpage: "The FBI learned of the crime in-flight and immediately opened an extensive investigation that lasted many years. Calling it NORJAK, for Northwest Hijacking, we interviewed hundreds of people, tracked leads across the nation, and scoured the aircraft for evidence."
66 fingerprints left on various surfaces in the airplane revealed no matches.
Four Main Pieces of Evidence
Cooper left behind a black clip-on necktie, presumably shed before his jump. A DNA sample was taken from the tie but the FBI determined that nothing conclusive could be gleaned from it, stating that "...It's difficult to draw firm conclusions from these samples".
In March 2009, a group known as the Cooper Research Team (CRT) commenced a reinvestigation into the case. Utilizing advanced technologies such as GPS, satellite imagery, and electron microscopy unavailable in 1971, the CRT aimed to shed new light on the mystery. Led by paleontologist Tom Kaye, scientific illustrator Carol Abraczinskas, and metallurgist Alan Stone, the team analyzed components from the case and made significant findings on Cooper's tie.
Of particular importance was the unalloyed titanium, a rare material during the 1970s. Its usage was typically restricted to aircraft fabrication facilities and chemical companies handling highly corrosive substances. The presence of cerium and strontium sulfide suggested connections to Boeing's supersonic transport development project and Portland factories involved in cathode ray tube manufacturing. The titanium-antimony alloys potentially linked Cooper to Rem-Cru Titanium Inc., a metals manufacturer, and Boeing contractor.
During the meticulous examination of Cooper's seat, FBI agents stumbled upon two hair samples of potential significance. The first was a solitary strand of limb hair discovered on the seat itself, while the second was a strand of brown Caucasian head hair found on the headrest. Upon scrutiny by the FBI Crime Laboratory, it was determined that the limb hair lacked the necessary distinctive microscopic characteristics to be of further use, leading to its destruction. However, recognizing the potential value of the head hair for future comparison, the FBI Crime Laboratory carefully preserved it on a microscope slide.
In a disheartening turn of events though, the quest to construct Cooper's DNA profile encountered an unforeseen obstacle. In 2002, during the FBI's diligent efforts to further analyze the preserved hair sample, it was discovered that the hair had inexplicably gone missing. The loss of this crucial piece of evidence dealt a blow to the ongoing investigation, leaving behind yet another perplexing twist in the enigmatic tale of D.B. Cooper.
FBI agents recovered eight cigarette butts from the armrest of Cooper's seat, the leavings of the cigarettes he had chain-smoked since takeoff. No fingerprints could be extracted from the Raleigh-brand filters, so the butts were returned to the Las Vegas Field Office for storage. When DNA testing became more widespread, the FBI requested the return of the butts for further investigation, but as with the hair samples they had been destroyed.
During the hijacking, Cooper had demanded and received two main civilian parachutes and two reserve chutes, presumably for his own use, as well as any hostages he may have taken. Of these four parachutes, two were supplied by a local sky diving school.
Among the reserve parachutes provided to Cooper, one was deemed inoperable and solely intended for training purposes and classroom demonstrations. Strikingly, it was this very chute that Cooper opted to utilize during his daring leap from the aircraft. This perplexing choice led investigators to a significant conclusion: Cooper's limited expertise in parachuting. A seasoned parachutist, well-versed in the intricacies of the sport, would have instinctively avoided selecting an unsuitable training parachute for such a critical jump.
FBI Special Agent Larry Carr wrote in 2007, "No experienced parachutist would have jumped in the pitch-black night, in the rain, with a 200-mile-an-hour wind in his face, wearing loafers and a trench coat. It was simply too risky. He also missed that his reserve chute was only for training and had been sewn shut—something a skilled skydiver would have checked."
The Ransom Money: A Trail of Soggy Clues
One of the most intriguing aspects of the Cooper case is the $200,000 ransom money. The bills were marked with recorded serial numbers, providing a potential lead for investigators. However, despite the diligent efforts of the FBI and the circulation of the marked bills, the money never resurfaced in a way that definitively pointed to Cooper's whereabouts. The fate of the ransom money remains an unsolved puzzle, leaving open the possibility that it may hold the key to unlocking the truth behind Cooper's disappearance.
On February 10, 1980, while vacationing with his family at Tina Bar, a beachfront along the Columbia River in Washington, eight-year-old Brian Ingram made a remarkable discovery. As he raked the sandy riverbank to prepare for a campfire, he unearthed three packets of the ransom money, amounting to approximately $5,800. Despite the bills having deteriorated due to prolonged exposure to the elements, they remained bound together with rubber bands.
Subsequent examination by FBI technicians confirmed that the money was indeed part of the ransom. It consisted of two packets, each containing 100 twenty-dollar bills, and a third packet with 90 bills, all arranged in the exact order as when originally given to Cooper.
Microscopic evidence suggests that the bills had floated down the Columbia from their original landing point, and they are the only confirmed physical evidence from the hijacking found outside Dan Cooper's 757 Boeing jet.
In the five years following the hijacking, the FBI considered more than 800 suspects and eliminated all but two dozen of those. Eyewitnesses in Portland, Seattle, and Reno were all interviewed, leading to the famous composite sketches of Dan Cooper that are still well-known to the public today. Some of the more well-known suspects are as follows.
D. B. Cooper Himself
In pursuit of any potential leads, Portland police conducted an interview with a local resident named D.B. Cooper, considering the possibility that the hijacker may have used his real name or a previously used alias. Despite the Portland Cooper having a minor police record, he was swiftly ruled out as a suspect.
However, due to a journalist's haste, reporter James Long mistakenly associated this individual with the name used by the hijacker. This error was further perpetuated when United Press International wire service reporter Clyde Jabin republished Long's mistake, leading to the widespread adoption of the name "D.B. Cooper" as the hijacker's pseudonym by other media sources.
Richard Floyd McCoy
Richard McCoy (1942–1974) was a Vietnam veteran who served as a demolition expert and later as a helicopter pilot with the Green Berets. Following his military service, he became a warrant officer in the Utah National Guard, an avid skydiver, and had aspirations of becoming a Utah State Trooper.
On April 7, 1972, McCoy executed a notable "copycat" of the Cooper hijacking. Boarding United Airlines Flight 855 in Denver, he wielded a paperweight resembling a hand grenade and an unloaded handgun. He demanded four parachutes and $500,000. After receiving the parachutes and money when his flight landed at San Francisco International Airport, McCoy ordered the plane back into the sky. He then parachuted over Provo, Utah, leaving behind handwritten hijacking instructions and his fingerprints on a magazine.
The FBI arrested McCoy on April 9 with the ransom money and he was subsequently convicted, receiving a 45-year sentence. Two years later, he escaped from Lewisburg Federal Penitentiary with the assistance of accomplices who crashed a garbage truck through the main gate. However, he was tracked down three months later in Virginia Beach and engaged in a fatal shootout with FBI agents.
Could Robert Rackstraw Be D. B. Cooper?
A former Army helicopter pilot with a checkered past, Robert Rackstraw became the focus of the investigation by Eric Ulis, a self-proclaimed Cooper sleuth.
Robert Rackstraw (1943–2019), a retired pilot and ex-convict, served in various units during the Vietnam War, including an Army helicopter crew. He attracted the attention of the Cooper task force in February 1978 when he was arrested in Iran and subsequently deported to the U.S. to face charges related to explosives possession and check kiting.
While out on bail, Robert Rackstraw attempted to stage his own death by issuing a false Mayday call and claiming he was parachuting out of a rented plane over Monterey Bay. He was later apprehended in Fullerton, California, on charges of forging federal pilot certificates. Investigators noted his physical resemblance to Cooper's composite sketches and his military parachute training, but he was eliminated as a suspect in 1979 due to a lack of direct evidence implicating him in the case.
In more recent years, Eric Ulis and his team re-scrutinized evidence, including a tie Robert Rackstraw allegedly wore during the hijacking and followed leads that hinted at Rackstraw's potential involvement. However, the investigation failed to definitively link Robert Rackstraw to the Cooper case, adding yet another layer of complexity to the ongoing saga.
Marla Cooper and Lynn Doyle Cooper: A Family Connection?
Among the many theories that emerged over the years, one involved a woman named Marla Cooper, who claimed to have a family connection to the hijacker. According to Marla, her late uncle, whom she referred to as "Uncle L.D.B. Cooper," confessed to the hijacking on his deathbed. She asserts that she remembers Lynn Doyle Cooper planning the skyjacking at a family get-together around the time of Thanksgiving, 1971.
However, the veracity of Marla's claims remains disputed, DNA evidence having discounted L. D. B. as a suspect in 2011.
The New Old Kid On the Block: Vince Petersen
In 2022, Cooper die-hard investigator Eric Ulis developed a new person of interest in the late Crucible Steel researcher Vince Petersen.
Petersen worked for Pennsylvania's Rem-Cru Titanium, (later Crucible Steel and now Crucible Industries) in the late 60s or early 1970s, a researcher who would have had access to the rare titanium alloy later found on Cooper's discarded black tie. During 1971, the steel sector grappled with labor conflicts and economic instability, resulting in a significant number of steelworkers, approximately 47,000 in Western Pennsylvania alone, being either laid off or temporarily unable to work. This could potentially have presented a motive, born out of financial desperation, for holding a plane full of passengers hostage.
Vince Petersen passed away in 2022 at the age of 83.
You can follow Ulis and his investigations on his official website.
Could Cooper Have Survived The Jump?
This question has plagued the minds of anyone remotely curious about the D. B. Cooper case.
On the surface, Dan Cooper's scheme appears to be incredibly well thought-out, however, Cooper's lack of planning on potentially harsh PNW winter weather conditions has left investigators and enthusiasts baffled. How could such meticulous planning overlook such a glaring obstacle?
FBI agents, equipped with determination and expertise, tirelessly pursued leads in the Cooper case. They meticulously combed through the evidence, conducted interviews, and explored every possible avenue of investigation. From the initial moments of the hijacking to the extensive search for Cooper's identity, these agents left no stone unturned in their quest for answers, and yet, no trace of the briefcase or parachute has ever turned up.
The region encompassing Ariel and Amboy, WA, is considered the most probable drop zone for Cooper. It comprises rolling hills and moderate forests rather than an extensive wilderness. The absence of discovered remains, the briefcase, and other related items also add to the puzzle.
In 2008, a parachute unearthed in Amboy, WA initially garnered attention from the Seattle FBI due to its size, color, and location. However, the FBI later dismissed its significance without providing a specific reason. Notably, the chute was missing its container and harness, indicating that an individual had intentionally detached them upon landing and subsequently relocated them elsewhere.
The FBI concluded that Dan Cooper likely did not survive his dark jump into the unknown.
Northwest Orient Airlines: A Company Marked by the Hijacking
Northwest Orient Airlines, the carrier of Flight 305, became forever intertwined with the Dan Cooper case. In subsequent years they dropped the Orient, becoming simply Northwest Airlines before merging with the much larger Delta Airlines in 2009.
The Cooper hijacking left a lasting impact on the company, serving as a wake-up call to the entire aviation industry and prompting significant changes in airline security and procedures.
Following the events of November 24, 1971, the FAA required that the exterior of all Boeing 727 aircraft be fitted with a spring-loaded device (dubbed the "Cooper Vane") that prevents the lowering of the airstairs during flight.
31 hijackings in US airspace took place in 1972 alone, prompted by the ease of Cooper's midflight escape. In 1973 the FAA finally began security measures and mandatory bag checks for all persons boarding commercial flights. Because of this, hijackings dropped to a total of two for the entirety of 1973.
Flight Attendants: Witnesses to Mystery
The two flight attendants who were present during the Cooper hijacking played a crucial role in conveying his demands and ensuring the safety of the passengers. Florence Schaffner and Tina Mucklow witnessed Cooper's actions firsthand, and their accounts provided valuable insights into his demeanor and behavior. Their bravery and composure under the harrowing circumstances left an indelible mark on the Cooper investigation, serving as a testament to the resilience of those who find themselves caught in extraordinary events.
Five Mysterious Letters: Were They Truly From Cooper?
In the weeks and months following the skyjacking, five letters made their way into newspaper headquarters, including The Oregonian, sent from different locations up and down the US west coast. These were collected by the FBI, and only one was typewritten, although all were signed "D. B. COOPER". Were they sent by the real man who somehow escaped a deathly fate after his airplane jump? Nobody can say for sure.
The Cooper Investigation: A Puzzle Unraveled
The Cooper case presented investigators with a labyrinth of clues, red herrings, and dead ends. The FBI devoted significant resources to unraveling the mystery, but ultimately, the answers remained elusive. Despite extensive searches, Cooper's fate and true identity continue to elude authorities. The investigation spanned decades and involved countless agents, but the tantalizing secrets of the Cooper case have proven to be one of the most enduring mysteries in American history.
The Pacific Northwest: Landscapes Shrouded in Mystery
The Pacific Northwest, with its majestic mountains, dense forests, and winding rivers, provided the stage for the Cooper hijacking. The rugged terrain and vast wilderness served as both a backdrop for his audacious act and a potential hiding place for his escape. From the towering peaks of the Cascade Range to the meandering Lewis River, the southwest Washington region's landscapes became intertwined with the enigma of D.B. Cooper and his Northwest Hijacking.
As the years turned into decades, the Cooper case continued to captivate the public's imagination. Oregon, with its lush forests, vast wilderness, and the iconic Columbia River, became intrinsically linked to the legend of D.B. Cooper. The Pacific Northwest's breathtaking landscapes provided both a backdrop and a hiding place for Cooper's audacious act, perpetuating the allure and mystique surrounding his identity and ultimate fate.
The Enigma Endures: Cooper's Legacy
The Cooper case endures as a testament to the enduring power of mystery and the allure of unsolved crimes. Cooper's audacity, meticulous planning, and ability to evade capture have inspired countless books, movies, and works of art, cementing his status as an icon of intrigue. Whether Cooper perished in his daring escape or managed to disappear into a new identity, his legend lives on, forever etched in the annals of aviation history and the collective imagination of those captivated by unsolved enigmas.
Unsolved Mysteries: Cooper's Identity and Fate
The unanswered questions surrounding D.B. Cooper persist, fueling endless speculation and debate. Who was he, and what became of him after his daring escape? Did he perish in the wilderness or manage to start a new life under a different identity? The elusive nature of Cooper's identity and fate continues to fascinate and frustrate, leaving room for a myriad of theories and hypotheses.
Fifty years after the fact, armchair sleuths on internet forums continue the investigation from the comfort of their offices and living rooms.
The city of Ariel, Washington held the annual Dan Cooper Days for years, now replaced by Vancouver's CooperCon every year in late November.
According to Wikipedia, characters and situations inspired by Cooper have appeared in the story lines of the television series Prison Break, Justified, The Blacklist, NewsRadio, Leverage, Journeyman, Renegade, Numb3rs, 30 Rock, Drunk History, Breaking Bad, and Loki, as well as the 1981 film The Pursuit of D. B. Cooper, the 2004 film Without a Paddle, and a book titled The Vesuvius Prophecy, based on The 4400 TV series. In fact, Wikipedia has an entire page solely dedicated to Dan Cooper in pop-culture.
A Trail Gone Cold: The FBI's Official Conclusion
In 2016, the FBI officially concluded its active investigation into the Cooper case, citing a lack of viable leads. The tantalizing mystery of D.B. Cooper, the audacious hijacker who vanished into thin air, remains unsolved. Despite the dedicated efforts of numerous investigators, the ultimate fate and true identity of Cooper continue to elude authorities.
In Conclusion: A Long Story Short
The saga of Dan Cooper, the mysterious hijacker who vanished into the night, continues to captivate and confound. Oregon, the backdrop of his audacious act of air piracy, remains intertwined with his legend, perpetuating the mystique surrounding his identity and ultimate fate. As time marches on, new theories and leads may emerge, casting fresh light on this enigma. Until then, the tale of DB Cooper remains an enduring mystery, reminding us of the tantalizing secrets that remain hidden in the shadows of history.